Energy crisis in pakistan essay


Today the whole nation feels paralysed due to the energy crisis it faces. In our country, energy crisis started in 1985. Different political parties raised voice for building the Kalabagh Dam during General Zia-ul-Haq’s regime.

But unfortunately the Wapda Survey team went to Nowshehra, and measured the dam height.

The NWFP governor, now KPK, refused to build it, arguing at such height Noshera district would be drowned.

Thereafter, the Kalabagh Dam issue was taken up by National Awami Party & Sindh Nationalist Party, due to which the project became disputed.

If the project had been completed, 3500 MWs of electricity would have been produced, and the nation would not have faced the energy crisis.

the main causes of energy crisis.


To overcome the energy crisis, the cheapest energy comes from hydel projects. Unfortunately our previous governments did not construct dams, according to our needs.

The population is increasing day by day. On the other hand, the industrial & agriculture sectors are not faring well due to the shortage of electricity. Hence, we need to construct more dams.


One of the biggest causes of the energy crisis is scarcity of water because we do not have a proper system for water shortage due to which water is wasted.

Water levels have gone down considerably in Pakistan, and this shortage of water can be met by constructing tube-wells.

One of the biggest causes of the energy crisis is scarcity of water because we do not have a proper system for water shortage due to which water is wasted.

Water levels have gone down considerably in Pakistan, and this shortage of water can be met by constructing tube-wells.

Water levels have gone down considerably in Pakistan, and this shortage of water can be met by constructing tube-wells.

Shortage of water has created problems for agriculture. Wheat, rice, cotton, vegetable, fruits and also fodder of animals are in extremely less quantity in the country. Pakistan is an atomic power. We can obtain energy from nuclear technology. But we are not utilising the nuclear technology for the purpose.

  • Defective government policies & political Hurdles:

The other main cause of energy crisis in Pakistan is defective policies of the successive governments. The ruling elite does not treat provinces equally, but  based on prejudices.

Political parties are also responsible for the energy crisis. They, for their vest interests, ignore and avoiding the collective interests of the nation.

Another reason of the energy crisis is terrorism in the country, so the investors do not come here to invest.

Due to line losses & theft of electricity, our power generation capacity is 16,000MWs. Our system is very old. Line losses are the main cause of power crisis in the country.

If stringent steps are taken to control these losses, then there will be decrease in the energy crisis and this mode of corruption will be controlled.

Due to these reasons, our economy is facing losses. Every sector is affected due to loadshedding and unemployment increases in the industrial and agriculture sectors  Resultantly, the whole economy suffers.

How to overcome the

energy crisis:

The present government intends to resolve the energy crisis seriously. The prime minister has visited China and Central Asian States to settle this problem The Chinese president visited Pakistan on April 20, 2015 for two days Pakistan-China signed Memorandums of Understanding and agreements worth $45 billion on the occasion, while $35 billion investment was agreed for the energy projects like coal, solar, wind and hydel.

By the end of 2018, 8,400 MWs of electricity will be added to the National Grid. Total capacity of generation will increase more than 20,000 megawatts.

Prime Minister of Pakistan also visited Tajikistan. Four countries inked an agreement for a project of 1300 megawatts, out of which Pakistan will receive 1000 megawatts, while the remaining 300 megawatts will go to Afghanistan.

This project will be completed by the 2017 end. It is expected that by the end of 2018 the electricity shortfall will be overcome.

Our Industrial and agricultural sectors will start production according to our needs and requirements, and unemployment will decrease.

The federal and provincial governments both should preferably start hydel projects because these are least expensive.

Over 140 million Pakistanis either have no access to the power grid or suffer over 12 hours of loadshedding daily.

The average shortfall in the power sector is 4,000 MegaWatts, and nearly two billion cubic feet per day (BCFD) in the natural gas sector.

The shortfall in the power sector can rise to around 7,000MW or 32pc of total demand for electricity.

Chronic power shortage, in the form of load-shedding and power outages, costed the Pakistan economy Rs14 billion (7pc of GDP) last year.

household electricity consumption has grown at an average annual rate of 10pc yearly.

In the last five years, Pakistan has taken a hit of Rs145 billion per annum from system losses in the grid due to inefficient transmission and distribution.


Investment in the power sector has fallen to 0.7pc of the GDP in the last 10 years, from a high of 1.5pc during the 1980s and 1990s.


Rs30 billion is the approximate expenditure by Pakistani households on UPS and battery chargers alone. About 60pc of Pakistani households have some form of UPS as a backup for selected appliances during power cuts and shortages. Backup power sources are a stopgap solution, both wasteful and inefficient.

How can Pakistan cope with chronic power shortage?

Although the government is attempting to add capacity to the grid in order to remedy the persistent power shortage, these measures will take time to come into effect.

A more immediate solution to the problem is the conservation and efficient use of energy, as about 67pc of domestic energy consumption stems from inefficient appliances such as lights and fans.

Another alternative is to shift to renewable forms of energy, such as wind and solar power.

There is enough potential from wind generation to supply all of Pakistan’s electricity needs. Half this potential exists in one contiguous belt of Sindh coastline.

There are around 1.2m irrigation pumps installed in Pakistan, with about 90pc of these pumps using diesel directly or indirectly.

The use of solar irrigation pumps for agricultural purposes instead of diesel-powered or tractor driven pumps could mean a 27pc saving in consumption of diesel fuel for irrigation pumping.

The China Pakistan Economic Corridor is another way Pakistan could turn towards cleaner forms of energy, as China is a world leader in total wind and solar installed renewable energy, at about 140,000MW.

Punjab must lead the way in this initiative, as the province is home to the largest population in Pakistan and consumes the most electricity. About 90pc of all tubewells are also in Punjab.

The Raftaar report says the greatest responsibility and opportunity lies with the province to improve energy efficiency and conservation in agriculture, as well as in households and businesses.

Wapda 2015-16

The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) Chairman Raghib Shah has said that water sector projects are vital for sustained economic development, poverty reduction and social uplift in the country, particularly the remote areas of Gilgit-Baltistan. He expressed these views in a meeting GB Chief Minister Syed Mehdi Shah. Speaking on the occasion, the Chairman said that Wapda is implementing a number of mega and medium-sized projects in GB including multipurpose Satpara (generation capacity 17MW, water storage capacity 0.093 million acre feet) and Diamer-Basha (generation capacity 4500 MW, water storage capacity 8.1 million acre feet), 7100MW-Bunji, 34 MW-Harpo, 80 MW-Phandar and 40 MW-Basho hydropower projects etc. Apprising the Chief Minister of the progress on the projects, he said that Satpara Dam Project has substantially been completed. 

nder the plan, 17 large projects are under construction or at the detailed engineering stage. These projects will generate more than 20,000 megawatts (MW) of electricity and store about 12 million acre feet (MAF) of water.

The average tariff for hydro electricity is Rs 1.54 per unit as compared to the overall electricity tariff of about Rs 9 per unit.
Earlier, the meeting was told that seven projects with a cumulative capacity of more than 1500 MW are under construction. Out of these, five projects of about 400 MW will be completed in the current year, while the 969 MW-Neelum-Jhelum and the 106 MW-Golen Gol hydropower projects are progressing at a good pace.

Five projects of 5,700MW capacity to be completed by 2016

Five hydroelectric projects with capacity to produce about 5,700MW of electricity would be completed by 2016, said an official of the Water and Power Development Authority (Wapda) on Sunday.

The official termed the Diamer-Bhasha dam project on the Indus a ‘lifeline’ for the national economy and said it would go a long way in providing water for agriculture and electricity for domestic and industrial use. The dam has three important objectives — flood control, power generation and water storage.

The gigantic project would generate 4,500MW of electricity and store over 8 million acre feet of water to meet growing power and irrigation needs, he said.

The Neelum-Jhelum Hydroelectric Project is being constructed over Neelum river. Once completed, the project would contribute about 5.15 billion units of electricity annually to the national grid.

Annual benefits of the project have been estimated at Rs30 billion and it is scheduled to be completed by 2016.

The Wapda official said the Neelum-Jhelum project would help the country in meeting its growing energy requirements. It would produce 969MW of electricity after commissioning.

The Duber Khwar Hydropower Project is located on the Khan Khwar river, the right-bank tributary of the Indus, near Pattan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province at a distance of 265km from Islamabad. The project would produce 130MW of electricity.

The Wapda official said the tender for Kurram hydropower project had already been floated and engineering design was complete. The project would produce 84MW of electricity and it would be completed within 48 months.

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